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    2013年上海高考英语阅表达解题解析
    编辑:admin 更新时间:2015-7-14 9:49:33 来源:中学英语网 【字号: 】 浏览:

    Section D

    Directions: Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words.

          A study of more than five million books, both fiction and non-fiction, has found a marked decline in the use of emotional words over time. The researchers form the University of Bristol used Google Ngram Viewer, a facility for finding the frequency of terms in scanned books, to search for more than 600 particular words identified as representing anger, dislike, fear, joy, sadness and surprise.

          They found that almost all of the categories (类别) showed a drop in these “mood words” over time. Only in the category of fear was there an increase in usage.

          “It is a steady and continuous decrease,” said Dr Alberto Acerbi. He assumed that the result might be explained by a change in the position occupied by literature, in a crowded media landscape. “One thing could be that in parallel to books the 20th century saw the start of other media. Maybe these media—movies, radio, drama—had more emotional content than books.”

          Although both joy and sadness followed the general downwa rds trend, the research, published in the journal PLOS One, found that they also exhibited another interesting behaviour:the ratio (比率) between the two varied greatly, apparently mirroring historical events.

          During the Roaring Twenties the joy-to-sadness ratio reached a peak that would not occur again until before the recent financial crash. But the ratio plunged at the height of the Second World War. Nevertheless, the researchers held a reserved opinion about their claim that their result reflected wider social trends. In the paper, they even argue that the reverse could be true.

          “It has been suggested, for example, that it was the suppression (压抑) of desire in ordinary Elizabethan English life that increased demand for writing ‘filled with romance and sex’… perhaps,” they conclude, “songs and books may not reflect the real population any more than catwalk models reflect the average body.”

    (Note:Answer the questions or complete the statements in NO MORE THAN TEN WORDS.)

         本篇是一篇关于文学作品中词汇用量研究的科普文章。开篇首段即提出一个研究结论:在各种类型的书籍中,表达情感的词汇用量在下降。第二段对上文进行补充,强调单单表达恐惧的词汇用量呈上升趋势。紧接着第三段中给出了造成这种情绪词汇下降的原因——新媒体(电影、广播、戏剧)的崛起。第四、五、六段进一步探讨了新话题:表示快乐的词汇用量与表示悲伤的词汇用量这两者的比率,能间接反映出历史事件和历史趋势。

    81. A study of more than five million books indicated a decline in “mood words” over time except

       _______________.

    【答案】in the category of fear

    【解析】细节理解题。首先根据题干关键词A study of more than, decline, “mood words”定位至第一段第一句与第二段首句。接着题干中的except一词表示转折,表示与先前描述不符的情况,顺势与第二段末句内容 “Only in the category of fear was there an increase in usage.”相对应,表明除了in the category of fear,其余的情况情感用词都在下降。所以,正确答案填in the category of fear。

    82. According to Dr Alberto Acerbi, one reason for the drop of “mood words” in books may be that

       _______________.

    【答案】the literary position has changed in a crowded media landscape/ other media—movies, radio, drama—had more emotional content

    【解析】细节理解题。该题目要求考生找出感情用词下降现象的产生原因,而第三段主要内容都是在解释该现象的产生原因。再根据题干人名Dr Alberto Acerbi定位至第三段第二句。explained by后即为所填内容,整合后答案可为“the literary position has changed in a crowded media landscape”。同时也可定位至第三段最后一句,表明其他类型的媒介如电影、广播、戏剧能承载更多的情感内容,经整合后答案是 “other media—movies, radio, drama—had more emotional content”。

    83. What were the two periods when the joy-to-sadness ratio was at its highest?

    【答案】During the Roaring Twenties and before the recent financial crash.

    【解析】细节理解题。由题干关键词 “joy-to-sadness ratio” 定位至第五段首句,意为在“During the Roaring Twenties”比率达至顶峰,这种情形直到 “before the recent financial crash”才又一次出现。所以 “reached a peak”前面的主语与“until”后的内容即为所要求填写的内容,整合后答案是 “During the Roaring Twenties and before the recent financial crash.”。

    84. While the researchers found some changes in the use of “mood words” in books, they were

       not sure that _______________.

    【答案】their research result reflected wider social trends/ songs and books reflected the real population

    【解析】细节理解题。题干表明研究人员态度有一种转折,由此定位至第五段末句。其中 “held a reserved opinion”与题干中 “were not sure”相对应,则答案即可完善为“their research result reflected wider social trends”。同时因为文章第六段是对第五段观点的具体展开说明,所以亦可定位至第六段最后一句,意为研究者不能确定歌曲和书籍是否反映出了真实人口数,即答案也可以是 “songs and books reflected the real population”。


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