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    牛津高中英语Module 10 重点句型讲解
    编辑:admin 更新时间:2015-12-7 11:55:09 来源:中学英语网 【字号: 】 浏览:

    1. In trying to fight worldwide hunger, the United Nations set up the World Food Programme (WFP) in 1963. 为了抗击世界各地的饥荒,联合国于1963年成立了世界粮食计划署。
    【考点】 set up的用法。
    【点拨】 此句中set up为“建立,创立 ”之意。如:
      I have heard that they will set up a medical team to treat this kind of disease.
      Our university was set up fifty years ago.
    【拓展】 set up还有“竖立;张贴” 之意。如:
      The hero’s statue will be set up in the front of the square.
      He is setting up a notice on the wall.
    【考例】
          For all these years I have been working for others. I’m hoping I’ll _______ my own business someday.
      A. turn up     B. fix up     C. set up      D.make up 
    简析:C。由主语和宾语之间的逻辑关系可推出该空表示“创立”,因此应填set up。

    2. However, these small victories are a good start towards a better future because they are not the result of giving a man a single fish so that he can eat for a day.
     然而,这些小胜利是通向更美好前途的开始,因为它们不是给人一条鱼让他吃一天的结果。
    【考点】 so that的用法。
    【点拨】 so that“以便”,引导目的状语从句,此时so that前面通常没有逗号,后面常有can, could等情态动词。如:
      He saved every cent so that he could buy a new bike.
      He climbed to the top of the tower so that he could see farther.
    【拓展】 so that还可表示“结果”,引导结果状语从句,此时前面多有逗号,后面通常没有can, could等情态动词。如:
      The girl studied very hard, so that she passed the exam.
    【考例】
      I’d like to arrive 20 minutes early _______ I can have time for a cup of tea.
      A. as soon as  B. as a result  C. in case  D. so that  
    简析:D。so that引导目的状语从句。

    3. Angela, 21, adds,“ I' d love to stay in the community where I grew up, but there are no career opportunities there...”
    21岁的安吉拉补充说:“我愿意呆在我长大的社区,但那里没有就业机会……”
    【考点】 where的用法。
    【点拨】 where为关系副词,引导定语从句。如:
    This is the school where my youngest sister studies.
    【拓展】 where还可引导状语从句、主语从句、表语从句和宾语从句。如:  
          My home lies where a small river flows.
      Where he stays at present is still a secret.
      I really don’t know where she has gone.
          My question is where you will spend your holidays.
    【考例】
      The village has developed a lot _______ we learned farming two years ago.
      A. when   B. which    C. that     D. where 
    简析:D。由语境逻辑可以推出这个村子是我们两年前学习农业技术的地方,它发展得很快,因此该空应填where引导定语从句。

    4. By studying sociology, we can identify important factors such as education that help make people more successful within a society.
    通过研究社会学,我们可以确定一些重要因素,例如对于人们在社会上取得更大成功有帮助的教育。
    【考点】 by的用法。
    【点拨】 by为介词,“靠、用”,表示方法或手段,后接名词、代词、动名词。如:
          He learned the language by books.
      He entered the room by jumping through the windows.
    【拓展】 by还可表示增减幅度,后面常接分数、百分数或具体数字;
      by the time “到……为止”,引导时间状语从句。当主句为一般将来时时,从句用一般现在时表示一般将来时。如:
      Has the cotton output of this year increased by 10%?
      I’m taller than her by a head.
      By the time I graduate from middle school I will be eighteen.
    【考例】
          Luckily, the bullet narrowly missed the captain _______ an inch.
      A. by  B. at     C. a   D. one
    简析:A。该空强调误差幅度,因此应填by。

    5. This worked for some time until it became known that most of the Roma were not actually pilgrims, which further hurt their reputation in Europe.
    有一段时间这么做还真管用,直到后来人们都知道多数罗姆人实际上不是朝圣者,这一点进一步损害了他们在欧洲的声誉。
    【考点】 until的用法。
    【点拨】 句中until 为连词,用于肯定句时,表明动作或状态一直延续到until所表示的时间为止才宣告结束,其谓语动词须为延续性动词。如:
      We worked in the field until night fell.
      We waited until it stopped raining.
    【拓展】 连词until用于否定句时,表明动作或状态一直到until所表示的时间为止才开始发生,其谓语动词须为终止性动词。如:
      He didn’t turn back until the guest was out of sight.
    【考例】
          It is difficult for us to learn a lesson in life _______ we’ve actually had that lesson.
          A. until   B. after      C. since        D. when
    简析:A。由语境逻辑可知,人的一生难以吸取教训的状态一直延续到真正有了教训,该空应填until引导时间状语从句。


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