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    高考英语写作常见错误例析(词性问题)
    编辑:admin 更新时间:2015-10-22 9:58:32 来源:中学英语网 【字号: 】 浏览:

         英语和汉语不仅在遣词造句、句型搭配、习惯用法等方面有很大的差别,就是在词性方面也有很大的差别,并且这种差别有时会使同学们在写作时稍不小心就酿成错误。如:

    误用:Unfortunately, my car broke down and I was stuck here during it was being repaired.
    改为:Unfortunately, my car brok e down and I was stuck here while it was being repaired.
    说明:during 是介词,后接名词或代词,不接句子。 又如:He confidently authorized  me to act for him while he is abroad. 他信任地委托我在他出国期间代行他的事务。
    句意:不幸的是,我的车坏了,在修 车 的时候,我就被困在那里了。

    误用:He used to be very anxious if he had to make a speech, even it was only a speech to his old school.
    改为:He used to be very anxious if he had to make a speech, even  if it was only a speech to his old school.
    说明:从语义上看,even 和 even if都可表示“即使”,但是两者的词性不同:even 是副词,even if 是连词。比如:It was cold there even in July. 那里即使在七月,天气都很冷。Even if I have to walk all the way I’ll get there. 即使我得一路走着去,我也要走到那里。
    句意:如果他要演讲,他总是焦急不安,哪怕演讲是在以前呆过的学校进行。

    误用:With the cost of keeping money in the bank increases, so it’s spent faster.
    改为:As the cost of keeping money in the bank increases, so it’s spent faster.
    说明:虽然 with 和 as 均可表示“随着”,但词性不同:with 是介词,后接名词或代词,而 as 用于此义时是连词,后接句子。比较:He will improve as he grows older. 随着年龄的增长,他会进步的。People’s ideas change with the change of the ti mes. 时代变了,人们的观念也会变化。
    句意:随着在银行存钱的费用增加,人们的钱花 得也更快了。
     
    误用:She crawled cross the floor, her eyes stinging from the smoke.
    改为:She crawled across the floor, her eyes stinging from the smoke.
    说明:across 和 cross 均可表示“横过”、“穿过”,但词性不同: across 是介词,cross 是动词。比较:cross the street 横过马路 / walk across the street 走过马路;cross a river 过河,渡河 / swim across a river 游过河
    句意:她从地板上爬过去,眼睛被烟熏得直痛。
     
    误用:We were driving around outside when unfortunately three old ladies emerged from the hotel and came straightly across in front of us.
    改为:We were driving around outside when unfortunately three old ladi es emerged from the hotel and came straight across in front of us.
    说明:在现代英语中,straight 既可用作形容词,也可用作副词。straightly这个副词形式在现代英语中已被废弃,许多词典均不再收录此词。又如:We enjoy fresh vegetables and fruit, straight from the garden: fresh orange juice, fresh fish, fresh bread. 我们享用直接从果菜园采摘的新鲜的蔬菜和水果、新鲜的橘汁、新鲜的鱼、新鲜的面包。
    句意:我们正在外面开车兜风时,倒霉的是有三位老年妇女突然从饭店出来,直接从我们面前穿过。
     
    误用:He fell down to the ground, his mouth open and eyes close.
    改为:He fell down to the ground, his mouth open and eyes closed.
    说明:open 和 close 均可用作动词,前者表示“开”,后者表示“关”,是一对反义词,如:Please open your mouth.(请张开嘴),Please close your mouth. (请闭上嘴)。但是 open 和 close 也可用作形容词,此时前者意为“开着的”,后者意为“接近的”、“亲近的”等,而并不表示“关着的”,要表示“关着的”,英语用 closed,即用作形容词时,open 与close 不是一对反义词,而与 closed 才是反义词。
    句意:他倒在地上,嘴张开着,眼睛闭着。

    误用:It was at the tip of my tongue to tell him, suddenly the phone rang.
    误用:It was at the tip of my tongue to tell him, when the phone rang.
    说明:从句意看,用suddenly 并不错;但从句法来分析,空白处前后各为一个句子,而 suddenly 是副词,显然不承担起连接两个句子的重任。而when 用作并列连词,可表示“这时(突然)”的意思。又如:We were about to start, when it rained. 我们正要开始,就下起雨来了。She was walking down the road when she heard someone shouting for help. 她正在路上走着,突然听见有人呼救。不过,如果将 when 改为 and suddenly 也是可以的。
    句意:我差点就要告诉他了,这时突然电话铃响了。

    误用:He used to afraid of heights but he has got over that now. 
    改为:He  used to be afraid of heights but he has got over that now. 
    说明:因为 afraid 是形容词,不是动词,故其前的 be 不可省略。又如:No matter what happens I’ll stand b y you. so don’t be afraid. 不管发生什么事我都支持你,别怕。Nobody need be afraid of catching the disease. 没人有必要担心染上这个病。
    句意:他过去有恐高症,现在已经没了。

    误用:Do these students against the plan made by the teachers?
    改为:Are these students against the plan made by the teachers?
    说明:误用句主要是没有意识到其后的 against 是介词,而不是动词。又如:Are you for it or against it? 你是赞成还是反对?
    句意:这些学生反对老师们作出的决定吗?

    误用:There was a switch in the schedule, so we met in the morning instead the afternoon.
    改为:There was a switch in the schedule, so we met in the morning instead of the afternoon.
    说明:instead 为副词,其后不能接宾语;instead of 是介词,其后可接宾语。又如:You should encourage her in her attempts to become a doctor, instead of being so negative about it. 你应该对他想要成为医生的想法给予鼓励,而不该对此抱那么消极的态度。She opted for a winter vacation, instead of one in the summer. 她选择了在冬天休假而不是在夏天休假。
    句意:时间表上有一处变动,我们在上午而不是下午开会。

    误用:Even if we could afford it, we wouldn’t go to the abroad for our holidays.
    改为:Even if we  could afford it, we wouldn’t go abroad for our holidays.
    说明:误用句主要是将 abroad 误认为是名词。而其实 abroad 是副词。又如:He was facing a difficult choice between staying with his family or working abroad. 他正面临着是和家人呆在一起还是到国外工作的艰难抉择。
    句意:即使我们有能力,我们也不去国外度假。


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