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    中考英语语法:定语从句正误辨析
    编辑:admin 更新时间:2012-10-24 15:59:00 来源:中学英语网 【字号: 】 浏览:

    [误]I won't tell you the name of the person who teach me English. 
    [正]I won't tell you the name of the person who teaches me English. 
    [析]在定语从句中,关系代词作主语时,从它本身看不出其数的形式,这时要由它的先行词决定。这里who 应由 the person 单数决定,应该用单数谓语动词。又如:I who am a student want to find a spare time job. 这里的 who 应与 I 是一致的,所以其谓语动词应该用am。
    [误]We talked about the things and the people who we met during the Second World War. 
    [正]We talked about the things and the people that we met during the Second World War. 
    [析]这里的关系代词不要用 who,因为其先行词有两个一个是 things (物),而另一个是people (人),这时既不可用 who,又不可用 which,因前者只能用于先行词是人的情况下,而后者则用于先行词是物的情况下,所以只能用 that,因为它的先行词既可以是人又可以是物。
    [误]The book,that I bought yesterday,was very good.
    [正]The book,which I bought yesterday,was very good. 
    [析]先行词与定语从句被逗号分割开来时,即作为非限制性定语从句。在非限制性定语从句中 which,when,who,whom,where,when,whose 等都可以和限制性定语从句中的作用一样,而独有 that 不易用于非限制性定语从句。
    [误]The dictionary which I lent it yesterday is a very useful tool. 
    [正]The dictionary which I lent yesterday is a very useful tool. 
    [析]关系代词在定语从句中是要起语法作用的,它不是作主语就是作宾语。虽然在作宾语时它的位置由原来的宾语位置移到了句首,但它的作用依然存在,而且在原宾语位置上不能再出现宾语。
    [误]The teacher I want to learn English from is the one which comes from America.
    [正]The teacher I want to learn English from is the one who comes from America.
    [析]the one,anyone,those 作代词并且是指某人、物时,其关系代词不能用 which 应用 who。
    [误]This is the room in that the old man lives. 
    [正]This is the room in which the old man lives. 
    [正]This is the room which the old man lives in. 
    [正]This is the room that the old man lives in. 
    [析]that 不能紧跟在介词后作介词宾语,但如果介词不前置仍放于句尾,则可用 that 作引导词,而且可以省略。如: This is the room the old man lives in.
    [误]I can do everything which is good for you. 
    [正]I can do everything that is good for you. 
    [析]在先行词是 all,much,little,something,everything,anything,nothing,none,the one 等不定代词时,虽然它们指的是物体,但不要用 which 而用 that 作定语从句的引导词。
    [误]The only thing which the students can do is studying hard. 
    [正]The only thing that the students can do is studying hard. 
    [析]在先行词前有 only,any,few,little,no,all,one of 等词修饰时,虽然先行词指的是物,也不要用 which 作关系代词,而要用 that。
    [误]This is the first American film which I've ever seen.
    [正]This is the first American film that I've ever seen. 
    [析]在先行词是序数词,或由序数词修饰时,其关系代词不可用 which 这样的用法还有在形容词最高级修饰的先行词之后,如:This is the best book that I have ever seen.
    [误]He is from Africa, that we can see from the colour of the skin. 
    [正]He is from Africa, as we can see from the colour of the skin. 
    [析]当 as 或 which 引导非限制性定语从句时,它可能没有明确的先行词,它们所指代的是前面整个句子。如例题应译为他是从非洲来这个事情是可以从其肤色上看出的。


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