There is no denying that some people live to be older than others. Followed are the standard explanations: keeping a moderate diet, engaging in regular exercise, etc. But what effect does your personality have on your longevity (长寿)？Are there any kinds of personalities contributing to longer lives? A new study in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society looked at these questions by examining the personality characteristics of 246 children of people who had lived to be at least 100.
According to the study, those who live the longest are more outgoing, more active and less neurotic(神经质的）than other people. Long-living women are also more likely to be sympathetic and cooperative than women with a normal life span. These findings are in agreement with what you would expect from the evolutionary theory: those who like to make friends and help others can gather enough resources to make it through tough times.
Interestingly, however, other characteristics that you might consider advantageous had no impact on whether study participants were likely to live longer. Those who were more self-disciplined, for instance, were no more likely to live to be very old. Also, being open to new ideas had no relationship to long life, which might explain all those bad-tempered old people who are fixed in their ways.
Whether you can successfully change your personality as an adult is the subject of a longstanding psychological debate. But the new paper suggests that if you want long life, you should strive to be as outgoing as possible.
Unfortunately, another recent study shows that your mother's personality may also help determine your longevity. That study looked at nearly 28, 000 Norwegian mothers and found that those moms who were more anxious, depressed and angry were more likely to feed their kids unhealthy diets. Patterns of childhood eating can be hard to break when we're adults, which may mean that kids of depressed moms end up dying younger.
Personality isn't destiny, and everyone knows that individuals can learn to change. But both studies show that long life isn't just a matter of your physical health but of your mental health.
1. The purpose of the study in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society is ________.
A. to see whether people’s personality affects their life span
B. to find out if one’s lifestyle has any effect on their health
C. to investigate the role of exercise in living a long life
D. to examine all the factors contributing to longevity
2. What does the author imply about outgoing and sympathetic people?
A. They have a good understanding of evolution.
B. They are better at negotiating an agreement.
C. They are more likely to get over hardship.
D. They generally appear more resourceful.
3. What finding of the study might prove somewhat out of our expectation?
A. Easy-going people can also live a relatively long life.
B. Such characteristics as self-discipline have no effect on longevity.
C. Advantageous personality characteristics actually vary with times.
D. Readiness to accept new ideas helps one enjoy longevity.
4.What is the main idea of this passage?
A. Anger and depression cut one’s life span short.
B. Health is in large part related to one’s lifestyle.
C. Personality plays a decisive role in longevity.
D. Longevity results from mental and physical health
Last week, two companies, Kitty Hawk and Uber, announced their plans to bring flying cars to reality very soon.
Imagine never having to worry about traffic, stop lights, or road construction. A flying car would get to a place much faster than one travelling by road. On the other hand, imagine having to avoid drones (无人驾驶飞机) and other flying cars. Also, what if your battery dies when you are in the air? And, how will you know where to land?
Kitty Hawk is a start-up tech company supported by Google co-founder, Larry Page. According to the Kitty Hawk website, its car will be able to travel at speeds up to 40 kilometers an hour in the air. It says under US aviation law such a machine “does not require registration or a pilot’s license and may be flown in uncongested (不拥挤的) areas for recreational purposes.” As of now, the car can only be flown over fresh water.
Kitty Hawk is making a list of people interested in buying the flying car. They must pay a deposit of US$100. Those who get their names on the list early will receive US$2, 000 off the final cost of the car. However, Kitty Hawk has not yet announced the price. Kitty Hawk expects its first flying cars will go on sale by the end of this year.
At a conference last week, Uber announced plans for flying taxis to begin carrying passengers. Unlike the Kitty Hawk company, Uber does not plan to build its flying cars. Instead, it will use the resources of partner companies.
Like the Kitty Hawk car, Uber flying taxis will use electric power. Uber says its flying taxis could travel up to 241 kilometers an hour. The company said that could reduce the travel time between San Francisco and San Jose, California from two hours on the road to 15 minutes in the air.
Riders could use the Uber app to book a flying taxi to take them to their destinations. The company has not yet said how costly air taxi travel would be compared to road taxi travel.
5. What could the main problems for flying cars be?
A. There is not enough space for them to la nd.
B. Sky transportation would cause more traffic jams.
C. They may hit other flying cars or have a dead battery in the sky.
D. They travel much more slowly than travelling by road.
6. According to the passage, the pilots of flying cars ________.
A. must be professional pilots
B. are not required to have a pilot’s license
C. are required to fly in crowded space
D. are not only allowed to fly in urgent situations
7. What is Kitty Hawk doing to attract customers?
A. Reducing the price for all customers.
B. Giving rewards to those visiting its website.
C. Advertising its first flying cars on public media.
D. Offering is a discount to those paying a deposit early.
8. What is the difference between Uber and Kitty Hawk in the flying car market?
A. Uber’s flying taxis will use electric power.
B. Uber intends to build its flying cars to fly very fast.
C. Uber prefers to use the resources of partners rather than build its flying cars.
D. The trips made by Uber’s flying taxis are much cheaper than road taxis.
答案：1-4 ACBD 5-8 CBDC