中学英语网 - 英语教育资源门户手机版访问旧版
当前位置:首页 > 词汇 > 高中语法 > 资料详情

高中语法

高中英语语法:冠词

冠词是虚词,本身不能单独使用,也没有词义,它用在名词的前面,帮助指明名词的含义。英语中的冠词有三种:定冠词、不定冠词、零冠词。一、...

冠词是虚词,本身不能单独使用,也没有词义,它用在名词的前面,帮助指明名词的含义。英语中的冠词有三种:定冠词、不定冠词、零冠词。

一、不定冠词的基本用法

不定冠词用于单数可数名词之前,其中 a 用于以辅音音素开始的词前。而 an 是用于以元音音素前等, 不是元音字母开始的词前。

如:a university,a useful tool,a computer,an orange,an hour,an 800-meter bridge

1、与可数名词单数连用,表示类别。 例如:

--I knocked over my coffee cup. It went right over the keyboard.

--You shouldn't put drinks near a computer.

2、泛指某人或某物, 表示“某一个”,相当于 a certain。 例如:

--Hello, could I speak to Mr. Smith?

--Sorry, wrong number. There isn't a Mr. Smith here.

3、用于数量、时间等名词前,表示“每一(单位)的……”相当于 per。 例如:

I earn 10 dollars an hour as a supermarket cashier on Saturdays.

4、用于固定词组中。  例如:

a knowledge of ,have a gift for,give sb. a ride,a couple of,have a good time,keep a diary,in a hurry,once in a while,at a loss,tell a lie,do sb. a favor。

二、定冠词的基本用法

1、用来特指某(些)人或某(些)事物。所特指的名词常被短语或定语从句所修饰。例如:

Of all the reasons for my decision to become a university professor, my father's advice was the most important one.

2、指说话的双方都知道的人或事物。 例如:

Don't worry if you can't come to the party. I'll save some cake for you.

3、复述上文中提到的事物。例如:

There is a shelf in my father's room. The shelf is new.

4、用于单数可数名词之前,表示该类事物,相当于 a。例如:

When you come here for your holiday next time, don't go to the hotel; I can find you a bed in my flat.

5、序数词和形容词最高级前。比较级前若表示特指时也要用定冠词 the 。 例如:

The cakes are delicious. He'd like to have a third one because the second one is rather too small.

I want to chat with the taller of the two men.

6、在表示方位、乐器的名词前。例如:

Summer in the south of France is for the most part dry and sunny.

play the piano, play the violin

7、用于复数姓氏之前,表示“夫妇”或“全家”。例如:

the Smiths

8、表示世界上独一无二事物的名词前。例如:

the sun,the moon,the earth,the world。

9、用于由普通名词构成的专有名词、江河、山脉、湖泊、海洋、群岛、海峡、海湾运河及某些建筑物等名称前。 例如:

According to the World Health Organization, health care plans are needed in all big cities to prevent the spread of AIDS. After dinner he gave Mr. Richardson a ride to the Capital Airport.

10、在某些形容词之前,可表示某一类人。 例如:

the rich,the poor,the old,the wounded,the living,the dead。

三、不用冠词(零冠词)情况

1、人名、地名(街名、广场名、公园名)、大学名、国名、病名前。 例如:

Wang Fu Jing Street,Pei Hai Park 北海公园,Beijing University 但也可说 the University of Beijing。

2、抽象名词表示一般概念时,一般不用冠词。例如:

When you finish reading the book, you will have a better understanding of life.

3、物质名词表示一般概念时,一般不用冠词。 例如:

The warmth of the sweater will of course be determined by the sort of wool used.

4、表示职位或头衔的抽象名词前,常不用冠词。但表示具体的人时,加 the 。例如:

We will elect engineer Liu director of our factory. 类似的名词还有:president,monitor,headmaster,mayor 等。

5、表示季节、月份、星期几、节、假日等表示时间的名称前,不用冠词。但我国的阴历节前要用the。例如:

Children's Day,Women's Day,May Day the Spring Festival。

6、三餐、学科名称、球类活动和棋类游戏的名称前,不用冠词。例如:

play basketball,play chess。

7、man 作“人类”讲时,同 human,mankind 一样不用冠词。例如:

While he was investigating ways to improve the telescope, Newton made a discovery, which completely changed man's understanding of color.

8、by 与表示“通信、交通”的词连用,表示通信,交通手段时,不用冠词。例如:

If you go by train, you can have quite a comfortable journey, but make sure you get a fast one.

9、复数名词前不用冠词泛指类别。例如:

It is often said that teachers have a very easy life.

10、有些名词与介词搭配表示抽象意义,不加冠词,常作状语。例如:

His daughter is always shy in public and she never dares to make a speech to the public.

in surprise/wonder/danger/tears/comfort,in love with,under pressure,beyond expression 等。

文章评论

表情

共 0 条评论,查看全部
  • 这篇文章还没有收到评论,赶紧来抢沙发吧~