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高中英语语法:动名词

动名词形式与现在分词相同,即由动词原形加ing构成,其否定形式由“not + 动名词”构成。一、动名词的用法动名词,顾名思义,既有动词也...

动名词形式与现在分词相同,即由动词原形加ing构成,其否定形式由“not + 动名词”构成。

一、动名词的用法

动名词,顾名思义,既有动词也有名词的某些特征。可带有自己的宾语和状语,构成动名词短语。在句中可作主语、宾语、表语和定语。

1. 作主语.例如:

Seeing is believing.

Laying eggs is the ant queen’s full- time job.

It is no use arguing with him.

注意:动名词和不定式都可以作主语,动名词作主语表示一般或抽象的多次性行为,不定式作主语往往表示具体的或一次性的动作.例如:

Playing with fire is dangerous. (泛指玩火)

To play with fire will be dangerous. (指一具体动作)

2. 作表语.例如:

Her job is teaching.

3. 作宾语.例如:

He is fond of playing football.

I like swimming.

注① admit,appreciate,avoid,consider,delay,dislike,enjoy,escape,excuse,face,feel,like,finish,forgive,give up,imagine,include,keep,mention,mind,miss,practise,put off,resist, risk,suggest,can’t help,can’t stand(无法忍受)等动词后可以用动名词作宾语,但不能用不定式.

注② forget,go on,like,mean,regret,remember,stop,try等动词可带动名词或不定式作宾语,但意义上有区别。

I remember doing the exercise. (我记得做过练习。)

I must remember to do it.  (我必须记着做这事。)

I tried not to go there.  (我没法不去那里。)

I tried doing it again.  (我试着又干了一次。)

Stop speaking. (不要讲话。)

He stopped to talk. (他停下来讲话。)

I mean to come early today. (我打算今早些来。) 

Missing the train means waiting for another hour. (误了这趟火车意味着再等一个小时。)

注③在 allow,advise,forbid,permit等动词后直接跟动词作宾语时,要用动名词形式,如果后面有名词或代词作宾语,然后再跟动词作宾语补足语时,其宾语补足语用带to的不定式.例如:

We don' t allow smoking here.

We don' t allow students to smoke.

注④动词 need,require,want作“需要”解,其后跟动词作它的宾语时,必须用动名词,或不定式的被动式。这时动名词的主动式表示被动意义。例如:

The window needs( requires,wants) cleaning( to be cleaned)

注⑤在短语 devote to,look forward to,stick to,to be used to,object to,thank you for,have difficulty/trouble/problem (in) 等后的动词也必须用动名词形式。例如:

I look forward to hearing from you soon.

注⑥在 love,hate,prefer等动词后用动名词或不定式无多大区别。

但说话人有所指的时候,通常用不定式。

注⑦start,begin,continue在书面语中多后接动名词,在口语中多后接不定式。

注⑧在 should(would) like/love等后须用不定式。

4. 作定语.例如:

He has a reading room.

二、动名词的复合结构

动名词的复合结构由物主代词或人称代词宾格,名词所有格或普通格加动名词构成.在句子开头必须用名词所有格或物主代词.例如:

His coming made me very happy. 

Mary’s crying annoyed him.

She didn’t mind his crying. 

三、动名词的时态和语态

1. 动名词的时态

动名词的时态分一般式和完成式两种,如果动名词的动作没有明确地表示出时间是与谓语动词同时发生或在谓语动作以前发生,用动名词的一般式.例如:

We are interested in playing chess.

His coming will be of great help to us.

如果动名词的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前,通常用动名词的完成时态。例如:

I’m sorry for not having kept my promise.

2. 动名词的语态

以write为例,其动名词的时态和语态变化是:

一般式的主动语态:writing

一般式的被动语态:being written

完成式的主动语态:having written

完成式的被动语态:having been written

例如:

No one enjoys being made fun of in public. 没人愿意当众被取笑。

He hated being treated like a child. 他讨厌象对待小孩那样对待他。

Do you remember having been sent such an e-mail? 你记得曾经给你寄过这样一封电子邮件吗?

The house showed no sign of having been damaged. 这栋房子没有已经受损的迹象。

注意:有些动名词在句中具有主动的形式,但含有被动的意义。这些动名词主要做need(需要), want(需要), require(需要)等的宾语以及介词worth的宾语。例如:

The house needs repairing. = This house needs to be repaired.

The situation requires careful handling. = The situation requires to be careful handled.

Your hair wants cutting. = Your hair wants to be cut.

The book is worth reading.

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