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写作辅导:如何写英语短文缩写和评论

英语短文缩写就是对所学的课文进行缩写,也可以采用其它阅读材料,但要求被缩写的材料难易程度不超过所学课本。被用于进行缩写的课文或其它...

英语短文缩写就是对所学的课文进行缩写,也可以采用其它阅读材料,但要求被缩写的材料难易程度不超过所学课本。被用于进行缩写的课文或其它材料必须观点明确,层次分明,叙述有条理。缩写时应做到简明扼要,抓住重点,不要拖泥带水,没有主次。初学阶段的被缩写材料不宜太长,以不超1000词为佳,缩写文以不超过100词为佳。以下就一篇短文进行缩写。

Most shops in Britain open at 9.00 a.m. and close at 5.00 or 5.30 in the evening. Small shops usually close for an hour at lunchtime. On one or two days a week-usually Thursday and/or Friday-some large food shops stay until about 8.00 p.m. for late night shopping.

Many shops are closed in the afternoon on one day a week. The day is usually Wednesday or Thursday and it is a different day in different towns. Nearly all shops are closed on Sunday. Newspaper shops are open in the morning, and sell sweets and cigarettes as well. But there are legal restrictions on selling many things on Sundays. Many large food shops (supermarkets) are self-service. When you go into one of these shops you take a basket and you put the things you wish to buy into it. You queue up at the cash desk and pay for everything just before you leave. If anyone tries to take things from a shop without paying they are almost certain to be caught. Most shops have store detectives who have the job of catching shoplifters. Shoplifting is considered a serious crime by the police and the courts. When you are waiting to be served in a shop, it is important to wait your turn. It is important not to try to be served before people who arrived before you. Many people from overseas are astonished at the British habit of queuing.

将短文缩写如下:

This article tells us about British shops. British shops usually open at 9.00 a.m. and close at 5.00or 5.30 p.m. Many shops are closed in the afternoon one day a week. Nearly all shops are closed on Sundays. In Britain, many large food shops are self-service. And when you wait to be served in a shop, you have to wait patiently for your turn.

这是一篇不超过100词的缩写,句子基本上由原文各段落的主要内容构成。个别段落被完全删除以保证缩写重点突出,前后连贯。缩写是一种“依材剪贴”的习作方式,基本上采用原材料中的词语和句子,仅作了部分调整,是最初级的习作方式。

英语评论是就所学课文或阅读材料进行分析,提出一定的看法。可以是对原文观点表示赞同,也可以提出异议或不同看法。如对前文便可作以下评论:

From the article we learned about British shops, about their opening and closing time and their service. But we find that there are something inconvenient with British shop service. First is the time. Shops in Britain open very late and close too early. Second is that there is almost no Sunday service. Where can people go if they suddenly need to buy something? The last is the habit of queuing. It will be a waste of time if the queue is too long.

初学阶段,短文评论的字数一般也应在150字左右,不宜写大多。短评是一种“一半依材一半发挥”的习作方式。在内容上,一部分取自原文,一部分靠自己的思考。在用词上,可以部分地依赖原文,也需使用一些其它词汇。此外,短评的行文布局和用句也是一半模仿,一半创造。短评的这种特点使它非常适合承接短文缩写阶段,而又为后期阶段打下一定的基础。

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