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高中英语语法知识:延续性动词与非延续性动词

动词按其动作发生的方式、动作发生过程的长短,可分为延续性动词和终止性动词。一、延续性动词延续性动词表示的动作不但可以延续,而且可以...

动词按其动作发生的方式、动作发生过程的长短,可分为延续性动词和终止性动词。

一、延续性动词

延续性动词表示的动作不但可以延续,而且可以产生持久的影响。常见的这类动词有:be,have,keep,know,learn,lie,live,read,sing,sleep,stand,stay,wait,walk,watch等。延续性动词的用法很广,但常见于现在完成时中的句子中,且常与for,how,long,since等引导的表示一段时间的状语或状语从句连用。

举例:

1.I have learned more than 1,000 Chinese words since I came to China.自从来到中国,我已经学会了l,000多个汉字。

2.We have lived in Linqing since we came here.自从来到这儿,我们就一直住在临清。

3.I have kept the picture for about three years.这张画我保存了大约三年。

延续性动词又称持续性动词,它所表示的是一种持续的动作。延续性动词可与表示一段时间的时间状语连用, 而非延续性动词不行。

(1) How long have you had it? 这辆车你买了多久了?

[说明] 在英语中,非延续性动词不能与表示一段时间的时间状语连用。所以我们不说,

“How long have you bought it?”因为how long 是“多久”的意思,而buy是非延续性动词,二者不相配。

常用的非延续性动词有:become, begin, buy, borrow, arrive, come, die, fall, finish, get to know, go, join, leave, marry, start, stop等。

为了表达这种意思,我们常用相应的延续性动词 have,keep 或短语 “be+名词,形容词,位置副词,介词短语” 来代替非延续动词。

如:become---be, begin---have/ be on, borrow---keep, buy---have, come---be here/there/in…, die---be dead, finish---be over, join---be in, leave---be away等。

His father has been dead for one year.(不能用die)

My brother has been in the army for two years.(不能用join)

I have kept the book for two weeks. (不能用borrow)我借这本书两个星期了。

二、非延续性动词

非延续性动词也称终止性动词、瞬间动词,表示不能延续的动作,这种动作发生后立即结束。

如:open, die, close, begin, finish, come, go, move, borrow, lend, buy等。

非延续性动词在肯定句中与表示时间点的状语连用,如:two years ago; at 5 o'clock;

He died 5 years ago.

否定的终止性动词可以与表示时间段的时间状语连用,没有发生的事就可以延续下去。例: I haven't left here for 3 years.

I haven't heard from him for 3 weeks.

非延续性动词可用现在完成时态,但由于动作是瞬时间完成的所以不能与for或since引出的时间状语连用。英语中常见的非延续性动词在完成时态中可改为相应的表示延续性的动词或短语,这时可与表示一段时间的的状语连用。

He has been a Party member for two years.

他已经入党两年了。

He has joined the Party for two years. (错误)

由于动作是瞬时间完成的所以不能与for或since引出的时间状语连用。

三、延续性动词与非延续性动词之间的转换

leave --- be away, borrow --- keep, buy --- have, begin/start --- be on, die --- be dead, finish --- be over, join --- be in+组织机构, be a member of+组织机构, open sth --- keep sth open, fall ill --- be ill, get up---be up, catch a cold --- have a cold, come here --- be here, go there --- be there, become --- be, come back --- be back, fall asleep --- be asleep, get to/ arrive/reach --- be (in), leave --- be away from, get to know --- know, go (get) out →be out, put on→ wear;catch a cold →have a cold等。 例: The old man died 4 years ago. ----The old man has been dead for 4 years. ---- It is 4 years since the old man died. ----Four years has passed since the old man died. He joined the Party 2 years ago. -----He has been in the Party for 2 years. I bought the book 5 days ago. ---- I have had the book for 5 days.

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