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高中英语语法知识:动词的语态

英语的语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。主动语态用于主动句,表示主语是动作的执行者。被动语态用于被动句,表示主语是动作的承受者。主动...

英语的语态有两种:主动语态和被动语态。主动语态用于主动句,表示主语是动作的执行者。被动语态用于被动句,表示主语是动作的承受者。主动语态的构成方式与动词时态相同,而被动语态由助动词“be+过去分词”构成,有人称、数、时态的变化。例如:

一般现在时:You are required to do this.

一般过去时:The window was broken by Xiao Ming.

一般将来时:The problem will be discussed tomorrow.

现在进行时:The road is being widened.

过去进行时:The new tool was being made.

现在完成时:The door has been painted.

过去完成时:He said that the work had been finished.

过去将来时:He said that the trees would be planted.

1. 带情态动词的被动结构 

The problem must be solved soon. 这个问题必须尽快解决。

2. 带不定式的被动结构

Betty has never been heard to speak ill of others. 从未听到贝蒂说别人坏话。

This task needs to be done with great care.这项工作必须认真去做。

3. 短语动词的被动语态

短语动词是一个整体,不可丢掉后面的介词或副词。例如:

My sister will be taken care of by Grandma. 我妹妹由奶奶照顾。

Such a thing has never been heard of before. 这样的事闻所未闻。

4. 表示"据说"或"相信" 的词组,基本上由believe, consider, declare, expect, feel , report, say, see, suppose, think, understand等组成。例如:

It is said that… 据说

It is reported that… 据报道 

It is believed that… 大家相信 

It is hoped that… 大家希望

It is well known that… 众所周知

It is thought that… 大家认为

It is suggested that… 据建议 

It is taken granted that… 被视为当然 

It has been decided that… 大家决定

It must be remember that… 务必记住的是

5. 不用被动语态的情况

1)当谓语是表示状态或特征的及物动词时,不用被动语态。这样的及物动词有have, become, cost, reach, sell, arrive, fit, lack, contain, hold, own, suit等。如:

We have a good teacher. 我们有一位好老师。

My shoes don’t fit me. 我的鞋不合脚。

Jack always lacks confidence. 杰克总是缺乏信心。

The classroom holds 80 students. 这间教室容纳80个学生。

2)及物动词的宾语为反身代词、相互代词、非谓语动词、同源宾语时,都没有被动语态。如:

The boy taught himself English. 这男孩自学英语。

We help each other.  我们互相帮助。

Alice hopes to visit her hometown. 爱丽丝希望去看看她的家乡。

They live a happy life. 他们过着一个幸福的生活。

She dreamed a bad dream last night. 昨天晚上她做了一个噩梦。

3)有些及物动词或动词短语也不用被动语态。这样的动词和短语有marry, wish, notice, watch, agree with, arrive at/in, shake hands with, succeed in, suffer from, happen to, take part in, walk into, belong to等。如:

The accident happened last night. 事故发生在昨天晚上。

I agree with you.   我同意你的意见。

4)当谓语动词是连系动词、不及物动词或相当于不及物动词的动词短语时,不用被动语态。这样的动词有appear, be, become, fall, feel, get, grow, keep, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn, die, disappear, end (vi. 结束), fail, happen, last, lie, remain, sit, stand, break out, come true, fall asleep, keep silence, lose heart, take place等。如:

After the fire, very little remained of my house. 大火后,我房子里所剩无几。 

A few minutes later, the man appeared.  几分钟后,那个人出现了。

5)当宾语是不定式时,很少用于被动语态。例如:

(对)She likes to swim.

(错)To swim is liked by her.

6. 主动形式表示被动意义

1)wash, clean, cook, iron, look, cut, sell, read, wear, feel, draw, write, sell等。例如:

The book sells well. 这本书销路好。

This knife cuts easily. 这刀子很好用。

2)blame, let(出租), remain, keep, rent, build等。例如:

I was to blame for the accident. 事故发生了,我该受指责。

Much work remains. 还有许多活要干。

3) 在need, require, want, worth (形容词), deserve后的动名词必须用主动形式。例如:

The door needs repairing.= The door needs to be repaired. 门该修了。

This book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读。

4)特殊结构:make sb. heard / understood (使别人能听见/理解自己)等。例如:

 Explain it clearly and make yourself understood. 解释清楚些,让别人理解你的话。

7. 被动形式表示主动意义,如 be determined, be pleased, be occupied(in), get married等。例如:

He is determined to work hard. 他决定努力工作。

注意:表示同某人结婚,用marry sb. 或get married to sb.均可。例如:

He married a rich girl. 他与一个富妞结婚了。

He got married to a rich girl.

其实我们不妨把下面这样一些被动结构,当作固定词组来记:

be armed with(掌握了),be attached to(依恋上),be burdened with (担负着),be buried in(致力于,专心于),be concerned with/about (关心),be convinced of(相信),be dressed in (穿着),be equipped with(配备了),be hidden(躲藏起来),be located(位于),be lost in(陷入,迷路),be occupied in/with(忙于),be seated(就座),be crowded with(挤满了),be covered with(覆盖着),be filled with(充满了)等等。

8. "be + 过去分词" 并非都是被动语态,系动词 be, feel, seem, look,等词后面的过去分词已转化为形容词,作表语用,表示某种状态。例如:

I’m interested in mathematics.

我对数学感兴趣。

He seems unsatisfied with his work.

他看起来对他的工作不满意。

We are determined to catch up with the developed countries.

我们决心要赶上发达国家。

The song is called "Don’t forget me".

歌曲的名字叫“勿忘我”。

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